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教育部政策法規(gui)司(si)負責人就《未成年人學校保護規(gui)定》答記者問(wen)

時間: 2021年06月(yue)03日 來源(yuan): 教育部網站(zhan) 作者(zhe):

背景(jing)色:

2021年6月(yue)(yue)1日,教育部(bu)部(bu)長陳寶生(sheng)簽(qian)署中華(hua)人(ren)民共和國(guo)教育部(bu)令第50號,公布以(yi)下簡稱《規定(ding)》),自2021年9月(yue)(yue)1日起施行(xing)。教育部(bu)政策法規司負責人(ren)就《規定(ding)》有關(guan)問題回答了記者(zhe)提(ti)問。

1. 問: 請簡單介紹一下(xia)制定《規定》的背景(jing)和(he)過程?

答: 未(wei)(wei)成(cheng)年(nian)(nian)人是(shi)祖國的(de)(de)未(wei)(wei)來(lai)。黨中(zhong)(zhong)央(yang)、國務院(yuan)高度(du)重視未(wei)(wei)成(cheng)年(nian)(nian)人保(bao)護(hu)工(gong)作(zuo),就此作(zuo)出(chu)(chu)(chu)一(yi)系列(lie)重大決策部(bu)署。2020年(nian)(nian)10月,習近平總(zong)書記簽(qian)署主(zhu)席令,頒布(bu)新修訂的(de)(de)未(wei)(wei)成(cheng)年(nian)(nian)人保(bao)護(hu)法,新法于今年(nian)(nian)6月1日起施行(xing),其中(zhong)(zhong)專章對學(xue)(xue)校保(bao)護(hu)作(zuo)出(chu)(chu)(chu)規(gui)定(ding)。保(bao)護(hu)未(wei)(wei)成(cheng)年(nian)(nian)人是(shi)全(quan)社(she)會的(de)(de)職責(ze),也是(shi)學(xue)(xue)校的(de)(de)法定(ding)義務。近年(nian)(nian)來(lai),教育部(bu)和地方教育行(xing)政(zheng)部(bu)門不斷(duan)加強和改進中(zhong)(zhong)小學(xue)(xue)管(guan)理(li),出(chu)(chu)(chu)臺了一(yi)系列(lie)文件(jian)(jian),近期又出(chu)(chu)(chu)臺了加強“五(wu)項管(guan)理(li)”等(deng)有(you)關(guan)文件(jian)(jian),取得了明顯(xian)成(cheng)效。但是(shi),學(xue)(xue)校未(wei)(wei)成(cheng)年(nian)(nian)人保(bao)護(hu)中(zhong)(zhong)仍然存在著對保(bao)護(hu)職責(ze)認識不全(quan)面、相(xiang)關(guan)制度(du)可操作(zuo)性不強、保(bao)護(hu)體(ti)制機制不健全(quan)等(deng)問題,迫切(qie)需要系統(tong)整合(he)現有(you)制度(du)、構建未(wei)(wei)成(cheng)年(nian)(nian)人學(xue)(xue)校保(bao)護(hu)的(de)(de)制度(du)體(ti)系,把中(zhong)(zhong)央(yang)要求和上位法規(gui)定(ding)落細落實,提(ti)升學(xue)(xue)校未(wei)(wei)成(cheng)年(nian)(nian)人保(bao)護(hu)工(gong)作(zuo)效能。

2018年,教育(yu)部(bu)即著手研究建立學校未成年人(ren)保(bao)護制度,在新(xin)修訂的(de)未成年人(ren)保(bao)護法(fa)發(fa)布(bu)后,加(jia)快(kuai)推進起草工(gong)作(zuo),委托相關(guan)高(gao)校、研究機構開(kai)展(zhan)課(ke)題研究論證(zheng),先后赴上海、江(jiang)蘇、四川等(deng)(deng)地開(kai)展(zhan)深入調(diao)研,廣泛聽取基層教育(yu)部(bu)門、學校、教師(shi)和學生家長的(de)意(yi)見,并征求(qiu)了(le)全國人(ren)大常委會(hui)法(fa)工(gong)委、最高(gao)人(ren)民(min)(min)檢察院、公安部(bu)、民(min)(min)政部(bu)等(deng)(deng)部(bu)門意(yi)見。在此基礎上形成了(le)《規定》,于(yu)2021年6月1日正(zheng)式發(fa)布(bu)。

2. 問: 《規定》的適(shi)用范(fan)圍是什么?

答: 《規(gui)(gui)定(ding)(ding)》的(de)主(zhu)要適用(yong)范圍是(shi)普通中小學校、中等職(zhi)業(ye)學校。幼兒園(yuan)、特(te)(te)殊教育(yu)學校有(you)更多的(de)保(bao)(bao)(bao)護、保(bao)(bao)(bao)育(yu)、照(zhao)護要求,因此規(gui)(gui)定(ding)(ding)其要依(yi)據《規(gui)(gui)定(ding)(ding)》落實(shi)(shi)對(dui)學生權益的(de)保(bao)(bao)(bao)護要求,并(bing)參(can)照(zhao)《規(gui)(gui)定(ding)(ding)》結(jie)合實(shi)(shi)際建(jian)立相應保(bao)(bao)(bao)護制(zhi)度(du),有(you)針對(dui)性地加強(qiang)對(dui)未成年(nian)人的(de)保(bao)(bao)(bao)護;但(dan)是(shi)對(dui)于幼兒園(yuan)、特(te)(te)殊教育(yu)學校及(ji)其教職(zhi)工侵害(hai)在(zai)園(yuan)、在(zai)校未成年(nian)人合法權益的(de),應當(dang)適用(yong)《規(gui)(gui)定(ding)(ding)》第七章的(de)問責(ze)方式從(cong)重予(yu)以處理。考慮(lv)到《規(gui)(gui)定(ding)(ding)》主(zhu)要針對(dui)學校這一特(te)(te)定(ding)(ding)組織(zhi)構(gou)(gou)(gou)建(jian)全面保(bao)(bao)(bao)護體系,而培(pei)訓機構(gou)(gou)(gou)、托(tuo)育(yu)機構(gou)(gou)(gou)等不具備(bei)學校的(de)組織(zhi)架構(gou)(gou)(gou),因此并(bing)未規(gui)(gui)定(ding)(ding)其適用(yong)《規(gui)(gui)定(ding)(ding)》,但(dan)有(you)關(guan)機構(gou)(gou)(gou)仍(reng)應當(dang)落實(shi)(shi)未成年(nian)人保(bao)(bao)(bao)護法的(de)要求,可(ke)以參(can)考《規(gui)(gui)定(ding)(ding)》建(jian)立健全內(nei)部的(de)管(guan)理制(zhi)度(du)。

3. 問(wen): 《規定》主(zhu)要保護學生的哪些(xie)權益?

答: 《規(gui)定(ding)(ding)》遵(zun)循全(quan)面保護(hu)(hu)的(de)(de)(de)原則,依據憲(xian)法、民(min)法典、未(wei)成(cheng)年人保護(hu)(hu)法、教(jiao)育法等(deng)法律,系統規(gui)定(ding)(ding)了學(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)應當(dang)保護(hu)(hu)的(de)(de)(de)未(wei)成(cheng)年人基本權(quan)(quan)利(li),即平等(deng)權(quan)(quan)、生命健(jian)康(kang)與自(zi)由、人格權(quan)(quan)、隱私(si)權(quan)(quan)、受教(jiao)育權(quan)(quan)、休息(xi)權(quan)(quan)、財(cai)產權(quan)(quan)、肖(xiao)像權(quan)(quan)和(he)(he)(he)知(zhi)識產權(quan)(quan)、參(can)與權(quan)(quan)、申訴(su)權(quan)(quan)等(deng)權(quan)(quan)利(li),專設“一(yi)般(ban)保護(hu)(hu)”一(yi)章予以(yi)規(gui)定(ding)(ding)。其中也有很多(duo)新的(de)(de)(de)提法和(he)(he)(he)要求,比(bi)如,針對(dui)一(yi)些學(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)出于安全(quan)和(he)(he)(he)便于管理的(de)(de)(de)需要,限(xian)制學(xue)(xue)生課(ke)間(jian)(jian)活(huo)(huo)動(dong)和(he)(he)(he)同(tong)學(xue)(xue)之間(jian)(jian)正(zheng)常(chang)(chang)交(jiao)往(wang),不(bu)(bu)利(li)于營造生動(dong)活(huo)(huo)潑的(de)(de)(de)教(jiao)育生態、保護(hu)(hu)學(xue)(xue)生活(huo)(huo)力和(he)(he)(he)全(quan)面發展(zhan)的(de)(de)(de)情況,明確(que)提出: 學(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)不(bu)(bu)得(de)設置侵犯學(xue)(xue)生人身(shen)自(zi)由的(de)(de)(de)管理措施,不(bu)(bu)得(de)對(dui)學(xue)(xue)生在課(ke)間(jian)(jian)及其他非(fei)教(jiao)學(xue)(xue)時(shi)間(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)正(zheng)常(chang)(chang)交(jiao)流、游戲、出教(jiao)室活(huo)(huo)動(dong)等(deng)言行自(zi)由設置不(bu)(bu)必(bi)要的(de)(de)(de)約束(shu)。再比(bi)如,《規(gui)定(ding)(ding)》禁(jin)止(zhi)學(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)、教(jiao)師公開學(xue)(xue)生的(de)(de)(de)考試成(cheng)績和(he)(he)(he)排名(ming),出發點是(shi)保護(hu)(hu)學(xue)(xue)生隱私(si)和(he)(he)(he)自(zi)尊心,減少攀比(bi)、避免歧視,緩(huan)解(jie)應試壓(ya)力;但(dan)是(shi)同(tong)時(shi)規(gui)定(ding)(ding)學(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)應當(dang)采取措施,便利(li)家長(chang)知(zhi)道學(xue)(xue)生的(de)(de)(de)成(cheng)績等(deng)學(xue)(xue)業信息(xi)。此外,《規(gui)定(ding)(ding)》落實(shi)“破五唯(wei)”的(de)(de)(de)要求,明確(que)禁(jin)止(zhi)學(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)宣傳升學(xue)(xue)情況,避免唯(wei)分(fen)數、唯(wei)升學(xue)(xue)率對(dui)學(xue)(xue)生和(he)(he)(he)學(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)進行評價,以(yi)營造良好(hao)的(de)(de)(de)教(jiao)育生態和(he)(he)(he)學(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)發展(zhan)環境。

4. 問: 《規定》就防(fang)治欺凌建(jian)立了哪些工作機制?

答(da): 校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)園(yuan)欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)是(shi)(shi)(shi)近(jin)年(nian)(nian)來中央關(guan)(guan)(guan)心、社會關(guan)(guan)(guan)注(zhu)、群眾(zhong)關(guan)(guan)(guan)切(qie)的(de)(de)(de)(de)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育領(ling)域熱點(dian)難點(dian)問題。此前(qian)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育部等(deng)(deng)部門就(jiu)防(fang)治(zhi)(zhi)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)園(yuan)欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)印發(fa)(fa)(fa)了(le)(le)專(zhuan)門文件,新(xin)修訂的(de)(de)(de)(de)未(wei)成(cheng)(cheng)年(nian)(nian)人(ren)保護法也對(dui)(dui)此做(zuo)了(le)(le)專(zhuan)門規(gui)定(ding)。《規(gui)定(ding)》將有(you)關(guan)(guan)(guan)要求(qiu)進(jin)(jin)一(yi)(yi)(yi)步具體(ti)(ti)化,進(jin)(jin)行(xing)了(le)(le)科學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)的(de)(de)(de)(de)制(zhi)(zhi)度(du)設(she)計(ji),構建(jian)了(le)(le)防(fang)治(zhi)(zhi)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)的(de)(de)(de)(de)規(gui)則體(ti)(ti)系。一(yi)(yi)(yi)是(shi)(shi)(shi)明(ming)確(que)(que)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)的(de)(de)(de)(de)概(gai)念。規(gui)定(ding): 學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)之(zhi)間(jian),在年(nian)(nian)齡、身體(ti)(ti)或(huo)(huo)者(zhe)(zhe)人(ren)數等(deng)(deng)方(fang)(fang)面占優(you)勢(shi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)一(yi)(yi)(yi)方(fang)(fang)蓄意(yi)或(huo)(huo)者(zhe)(zhe)惡意(yi)對(dui)(dui)另(ling)(ling)一(yi)(yi)(yi)方(fang)(fang)實(shi)施(shi)(shi)相關(guan)(guan)(guan)行(xing)為(wei)(wei),或(huo)(huo)者(zhe)(zhe)以(yi)其(qi)他方(fang)(fang)式欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)壓、侮(wu)辱另(ling)(ling)一(yi)(yi)(yi)方(fang)(fang),造(zao)成(cheng)(cheng)人(ren)身傷害、財產損(sun)失或(huo)(huo)者(zhe)(zhe)精神(shen)損(sun)害的(de)(de)(de)(de),可(ke)以(yi)認定(ding)為(wei)(wei)構成(cheng)(cheng)欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)。這一(yi)(yi)(yi)概(gai)念強調(diao)(diao)(diao)了(le)(le)主(zhu)體(ti)(ti)上的(de)(de)(de)(de)特定(ding)性(xing)、主(zhu)觀上的(de)(de)(de)(de)故意(yi)性(xing)、后果上的(de)(de)(de)(de)傷害性(xing),有(you)助(zhu)于把學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)和(he)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)園(yuan)暴力(li)、學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)間(jian)正常的(de)(de)(de)(de)嬉鬧(nao)等(deng)(deng)區別開來。二是(shi)(shi)(shi)明(ming)確(que)(que)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)的(de)(de)(de)(de)行(xing)為(wei)(wei)表現。《規(gui)定(ding)》歸納(na)了(le)(le)侵犯身體(ti)(ti)、侮(wu)辱人(ren)格(ge)、侵犯財產、惡意(yi)排斥、網絡(luo)誹謗或(huo)(huo)傳播(bo)隱私等(deng)(deng)五(wu)類(lei)欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)行(xing)為(wei)(wei),為(wei)(wei)欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)認定(ding)和(he)處(chu)(chu)理提(ti)(ti)供具體(ti)(ti)指引(yin)。三是(shi)(shi)(shi)建(jian)立(li)(li)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)預防(fang)機制(zhi)(zhi)。規(gui)定(ding)了(le)(le)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育制(zhi)(zhi)度(du)和(he)調(diao)(diao)(diao)查評(ping)估制(zhi)(zhi)度(du),要求(qiu)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育引(yin)導(dao)(dao)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)建(jian)立(li)(li)平等(deng)(deng)、友善、互助(zhu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)同學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)關(guan)(guan)(guan)系,開展防(fang)治(zhi)(zhi)欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)專(zhuan)題教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育;要求(qiu)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)定(ding)期(qi)針(zhen)對(dui)(dui)全體(ti)(ti)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)開展防(fang)治(zhi)(zhi)欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)專(zhuan)項調(diao)(diao)(diao)查,對(dui)(dui)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)是(shi)(shi)(shi)否存(cun)在欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)等(deng)(deng)情(qing)(qing)形(xing)(xing)(xing)進(jin)(jin)行(xing)評(ping)估。四是(shi)(shi)(shi)建(jian)立(li)(li)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)關(guan)(guan)(guan)注(zhu)、干預和(he)制(zhi)(zhi)止機制(zhi)(zhi)。要求(qiu)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)職(zhi)工應(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)當(dang)關(guan)(guan)(guan)注(zhu)可(ke)能(neng)處(chu)(chu)于弱勢(shi)或(huo)(huo)者(zhe)(zhe)特殊(shu)地位(wei)的(de)(de)(de)(de)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng),發(fa)(fa)(fa)現學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)存(cun)在被(bei)(bei)孤立(li)(li)、排擠等(deng)(deng)情(qing)(qing)形(xing)(xing)(xing)的(de)(de)(de)(de),應(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)當(dang)及(ji)時(shi)(shi)干預;發(fa)(fa)(fa)現學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)有(you)明(ming)顯的(de)(de)(de)(de)情(qing)(qing)緒反常、身體(ti)(ti)損(sun)傷等(deng)(deng)情(qing)(qing)形(xing)(xing)(xing)的(de)(de)(de)(de),應(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)當(dang)及(ji)時(shi)(shi)溝通了(le)(le)解(jie)情(qing)(qing)況,可(ke)能(neng)存(cun)在被(bei)(bei)欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)情(qing)(qing)形(xing)(xing)(xing)的(de)(de)(de)(de),應(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)當(dang)及(ji)時(shi)(shi)向學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)報(bao)告;發(fa)(fa)(fa)現學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)實(shi)施(shi)(shi)對(dui)(dui)他人(ren)的(de)(de)(de)(de)欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)行(xing)為(wei)(wei)的(de)(de)(de)(de),應(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)當(dang)及(ji)時(shi)(shi)制(zhi)(zhi)止。五(wu)是(shi)(shi)(shi)建(jian)立(li)(li)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)認定(ding)和(he)處(chu)(chu)置(zhi)機制(zhi)(zhi)。要求(qiu)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)成(cheng)(cheng)立(li)(li)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)治(zhi)(zhi)理組織(zhi)。規(gui)定(ding)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)接(jie)到學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)報(bao)告后應(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)當(dang)立(li)(li)即開展調(diao)(diao)(diao)查,認為(wei)(wei)可(ke)能(neng)構成(cheng)(cheng)欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)的(de)(de)(de)(de)應(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)當(dang)及(ji)時(shi)(shi)提(ti)(ti)交學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)治(zhi)(zhi)理組織(zhi)認定(ding)和(he)處(chu)(chu)置(zhi),對(dui)(dui)存(cun)在欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)行(xing)為(wei)(wei)的(de)(de)(de)(de)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)應(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)當(dang)進(jin)(jin)行(xing)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育懲戒或(huo)(huo)者(zhe)(zhe)給予紀律處(chu)(chu)分(fen),必(bi)要的(de)(de)(de)(de)還可(ke)以(yi)由法治(zhi)(zhi)副校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)長對(dui)(dui)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)及(ji)其(qi)家(jia)長進(jin)(jin)行(xing)訓導(dao)(dao)、教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育;對(dui)(dui)被(bei)(bei)欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)的(de)(de)(de)(de)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng),應(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)當(dang)進(jin)(jin)行(xing)關(guan)(guan)(guan)愛和(he)幫扶。《規(gui)定(ding)》還明(ming)確(que)(que)了(le)(le)不同學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)之(zhi)間(jian)發(fa)(fa)(fa)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)欺(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)凌(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)事件后的(de)(de)(de)(de)處(chu)(chu)置(zhi)機制(zhi)(zhi)。

5. 問: 《規定》對防(fang)治性(xing)侵害、性(xing)騷擾作了哪些規定?

答: 教(jiao)(jiao)職工當(dang)中存在極個別害(hai)群之馬對學(xue)生實(shi)施性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)騷擾、性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)侵(qin)害(hai)等行為,嚴重侵(qin)害(hai)學(xue)生權益(yi),性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)質惡劣、影(ying)響極壞,嚴重違背法律和師德(de)紅(hong)線,嚴重沖擊(ji)社(she)會道德(de)底線。針(zhen)對這一(yi)問(wen)題(ti),《規定(ding)》將防治(zhi)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)侵(qin)害(hai)、性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)騷擾納入(ru)專項保(bao)護(hu),要求學(xue)校建(jian)立健全教(jiao)(jiao)職工與學(xue)生交往行為準則、學(xue)生宿(su)舍安全管(guan)(guan)理規定(ding)、視(shi)頻監(jian)控管(guan)(guan)理規定(ding)等制(zhi)(zhi)度(du),建(jian)立預防、報告、處(chu)置性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)侵(qin)害(hai)工作機制(zhi)(zhi)。同(tong)時,明確規定(ding)學(xue)校應當(dang)采取必要措施預防并制(zhi)(zhi)止教(jiao)(jiao)職工以及其(qi)他(ta)進入(ru)校園的(de)人(ren)員實(shi)施六類行為: (一(yi))與學(xue)生發生戀愛關系(xi)、性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)關系(xi);(二)撫(fu)摸、故意觸碰(peng)學(xue)生身體特定(ding)部位等猥褻行為;(三)向(xiang)(xiang)學(xue)生作出具有調戲、挑(tiao)逗或者(zhe)具有性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)暗示的(de)言(yan)行;(四(si))向(xiang)(xiang)學(xue)生展示傳播包含色情、淫(yin)穢內容的(de)信息、書刊、影(ying)片(pian)、音像、圖(tu)片(pian)或者(zhe)其(qi)他(ta)淫(yin)穢物品;(五)持有淫(yin)穢、色情視(shi)聽、圖(tu)文資料;(六)其(qi)他(ta)構成性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)騷擾、性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)侵(qin)害(hai)的(de)違法犯罪行為。

6. 問: 規定有(you)很多制度創新(xin),學校在貫徹(che)實施時應該如何(he)把握?

答: 《規(gui)定(ding)》對(dui)標對(dui)表(biao)中央關于(yu)未(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)年(nian)(nian)人(ren)(ren)(ren)保(bao)護(hu)(hu)(hu)的(de)決策部署和(he)未(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)年(nian)(nian)人(ren)(ren)(ren)保(bao)護(hu)(hu)(hu)法的(de)規(gui)定(ding),結合(he)(he)相關規(gui)章(zhang)制(zhi)度(du),統籌謀(mou)劃、積極創新,系統構(gou)建(jian)了未(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)年(nian)(nian)人(ren)(ren)(ren)學(xue)(xue)(xue)校保(bao)護(hu)(hu)(hu)的(de)制(zhi)度(du)體(ti)系。貫徹落實(shi)《規(gui)定(ding)》要(yao)(yao)求(qiu),學(xue)(xue)(xue)校應當做好以下(xia)四個方面工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo): 一是(shi)(shi)全面履行未(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)年(nian)(nian)人(ren)(ren)(ren)保(bao)護(hu)(hu)(hu)職(zhi)(zhi)責各(ge)項(xiang)要(yao)(yao)求(qiu),切實(shi)保(bao)護(hu)(hu)(hu)未(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)年(nian)(nian)人(ren)(ren)(ren)合(he)(he)法權(quan)(quan)利;二是(shi)(shi)做好學(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)合(he)(he)法權(quan)(quan)益損害(hai)重大問題的(de)專(zhuan)項(xiang)保(bao)護(hu)(hu)(hu),建(jian)立(li)學(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)欺凌防控和(he)預(yu)防性(xing)侵害(hai)、性(xing)騷擾等專(zhuan)項(xiang)制(zhi)度(du),建(jian)立(li)對(dui)學(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)欺凌、性(xing)侵害(hai)、性(xing)騷擾行為的(de)零容忍處理(li)(li)機(ji)制(zhi)和(he)受傷害(hai)學(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)的(de)關愛(ai)、幫扶機(ji)制(zhi);三(san)是(shi)(shi)健全學(xue)(xue)(xue)校管理(li)(li)制(zhi)度(du),制(zhi)定(ding)規(gui)范教(jiao)職(zhi)(zhi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)、學(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)行為的(de)校規(gui)校紀,按照(zhao)要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)做好相關管理(li)(li)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo);四是(shi)(shi)完善學(xue)(xue)(xue)校未(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)年(nian)(nian)人(ren)(ren)(ren)保(bao)護(hu)(hu)(hu)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)機(ji)制(zhi),按照(zhao)要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)建(jian)立(li)未(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)年(nian)(nian)人(ren)(ren)(ren)保(bao)護(hu)(hu)(hu)專(zhuan)職(zhi)(zhi)機(ji)構(gou),指(zhi)定(ding)一名校領導直接負責學(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)保(bao)護(hu)(hu)(hu)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo),并明確具體(ti)的(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)機(ji)構(gou)及(ji)相關工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)要(yao)(yao)求(qiu),通過專(zhuan)職(zhi)(zhi)機(ji)構(gou)推動(dong)未(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)年(nian)(nian)人(ren)(ren)(ren)保(bao)護(hu)(hu)(hu)各(ge)項(xiang)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)機(ji)制(zhi)、管理(li)(li)要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)等落實(shi)落地。

7. 問: 《規定》和教(jiao)育部正在推進的“五項管理(li)”怎么銜接?

答: 近年來(lai),教育部(bu)和(he)(he)地方教育行(xing)政(zheng)部(bu)門不斷加(jia)強(qiang)和(he)(he)改進(jin)中(zhong)小學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li),出(chu)臺(tai)了(le)(le)一(yi)系(xi)(xi)列文(wen)件,近期又(you)出(chu)臺(tai)了(le)(le)“五項(xiang)管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)”的(de)(de)(de)(de)文(wen)件,取得(de)了(le)(le)明(ming)顯(xian)成效。《規定》與(yu)“五項(xiang)管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)”的(de)(de)(de)(de)要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)逐項(xiang)進(jin)行(xing)了(le)(le)銜接,將(jiang)政(zheng)策要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)轉(zhuan)化規章的(de)(de)(de)(de)制度(du)規范。一(yi)是(shi)作(zuo)(zuo)業(ye)管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)。學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)應(ying)當(dang)加(jia)強(qiang)作(zuo)(zuo)業(ye)管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li),不得(de)超出(chu)規定增加(jia)作(zuo)(zuo)業(ye)量,加(jia)重學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)習(xi)負擔。二是(shi)睡眠管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)。《規定》將(jiang)睡眠管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)的(de)(de)(de)(de)內容納入(ru)休息權保護(hu)中(zhong),要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)規定科學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)合理(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)安(an)排學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)在校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)作(zuo)(zuo)息時(shi)間,不得(de)統一(yi)要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)在規定的(de)(de)(de)(de)上(shang)課時(shi)間前到校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)參(can)加(jia)課程教學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)活動,并對(dui)集體(ti)(ti)(ti)補(bu)課作(zuo)(zuo)出(chu)相(xiang)關的(de)(de)(de)(de)禁(jin)(jin)止性要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)。三是(shi)手(shou)(shou)機管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)。規定學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)對(dui)手(shou)(shou)機管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)的(de)(de)(de)(de)權限(xian),明(ming)確(que)規定除教學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)需(xu)要(yao)(yao)外(wai),禁(jin)(jin)止手(shou)(shou)機等智能(neng)終(zhong)端產(chan)品(pin)進(jin)課堂。四是(shi)讀物(wu)管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)。明(ming)確(que)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)加(jia)強(qiang)讀物(wu)和(he)(he)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)園(yuan)文(wen)化環境(jing)管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)的(de)(de)(de)(de)職(zhi)責,禁(jin)(jin)止有(you)毒有(you)害讀物(wu)、圖(tu)片、視(shi)聽作(zuo)(zuo)品(pin)等進(jin)入(ru)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)園(yuan)。五是(shi)體(ti)(ti)(ti)質(zhi)管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)。明(ming)確(que)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)體(ti)(ti)(ti)質(zhi)監(jian)測制度(du)及學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)體(ti)(ti)(ti)育運動場地適當(dang)開(kai)放要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)。在這五項(xiang)管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)之外(wai),《規定》還(huan)明(ming)確(que)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)要(yao)(yao)建立藥(yao)品(pin)管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)、網絡管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)等管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)制度(du),構建了(le)(le)完(wan)善的(de)(de)(de)(de)保護(hu)未成年學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)制度(du)體(ti)(ti)(ti)系(xi)(xi)。

8. 問: 《規定》對教職工行為提出了(le)哪些禁止(zhi)性(xing)要求?

答: 教師承(cheng)擔(dan)著教書(shu)育人(ren)的(de)(de)(de)重要(yao)(yao)使命和塑(su)造(zao)靈魂、塑(su)造(zao)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)命、塑(su)造(zao)新人(ren)的(de)(de)(de)神(shen)圣職(zhi)責。教職(zhi)工(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)一言(yan)一行(xing)會對學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)產生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)直(zhi)接的(de)(de)(de)、重要(yao)(yao)的(de)(de)(de)影響。教職(zhi)工(gong)(gong)利(li)用(yong)職(zhi)務(wu)便利(li)謀取利(li)益(yi),不僅侵害學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)權(quan)益(yi),而且嚴(yan)重損(sun)害教師形象,甚(shen)至構成違法犯罪。為規范教師行(xing)為,保護學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)權(quan)益(yi),《規定》對教職(zhi)工(gong)(gong)行(xing)為提(ti)出了(le)六項禁止性(xing)要(yao)(yao)求: (一)利(li)用(yong)管(guan)(guan)理(li)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)的(de)(de)(de)職(zhi)務(wu)便利(li)或者(zhe)(zhe)招(zhao)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)考試、評獎(jiang)評優、推薦(jian)評價等機會,以任何形式(shi)向(xiang)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)及其家(jia)長索取、收受財物(wu)或者(zhe)(zhe)接受宴(yan)請、其他(ta)利(li)益(yi);(二)以牟取利(li)益(yi)為目的(de)(de)(de),向(xiang)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)推銷(xiao)或者(zhe)(zhe)要(yao)(yao)求、指定學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)購(gou)買特定輔導(dao)書(shu)、練(lian)習冊等教輔材料或者(zhe)(zhe)其他(ta)商品、服(fu)務(wu);(三(san))組(zu)織、要(yao)(yao)求學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)參加校(xiao)外有償補(bu)課(ke),或者(zhe)(zhe)與(yu)校(xiao)外機構、個人(ren)合作向(xiang)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)提(ti)供(gong)其他(ta)有償服(fu)務(wu);(四(si))誘(you)導(dao)、組(zu)織或者(zhe)(zhe)要(yao)(yao)求學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)及其家(jia)長登錄特定經營性(xing)網站,參與(yu)視頻直(zhi)播、網絡購(gou)物(wu)、網絡投票、刷票等活動;(五)非(fei)法提(ti)供(gong)、泄露學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)信息或者(zhe)(zhe)利(li)用(yong)所(suo)掌握的(de)(de)(de)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)信息牟取利(li)益(yi);(六)其他(ta)利(li)用(yong)管(guan)(guan)理(li)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)的(de)(de)(de)職(zhi)權(quan)牟取不正當利(li)益(yi)的(de)(de)(de)行(xing)為。

9. 問: 《規定》建立(li)了(le)哪(na)些(xie)保護工作機制?

答: 健(jian)全完善(shan)的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)機(ji)(ji)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)未(wei)(wei)(wei)成年(nian)人(ren)(ren)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)護(hu)(hu)各項制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)度能夠有效實(shi)施的(de)(de)關(guan)鍵(jian)(jian)。《規(gui)(gui)(gui)(gui)(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)》構(gou)建了八(ba)大工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)機(ji)(ji)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)。一(yi)(yi)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)領導(dao)(dao)機(ji)(ji)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)和組織機(ji)(ji)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)。要求(qiu)(qiu)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)指定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)一(yi)(yi)名(ming)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)領導(dao)(dao)直接負責學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)護(hu)(hu)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo),并明確具體(ti)的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)機(ji)(ji)構(gou)和人(ren)(ren)員(yuan)。規(gui)(gui)(gui)(gui)(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)有條件的(de)(de)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)可以設立學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)護(hu)(hu)專(zhuan)(zhuan)員(yuan),旨在打造一(yi)(yi)支(zhi)(zhi)專(zhuan)(zhuan)門(men)(men)隊(dui)伍、提高(gao)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)專(zhuan)(zhuan)業化水平。二(er)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)教(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)機(ji)(ji)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)。規(gui)(gui)(gui)(gui)(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)要加強對學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)的(de)(de)安全教(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)、心(xin)(xin)理健(jian)康教(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)、環(huan)境保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)護(hu)(hu)教(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)、健(jian)康教(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)、禁毒和預防艾滋病教(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)、青春(chun)期教(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)、性教(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)、法(fa)(fa)治教(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)等,提高(gao)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)自我(wo)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)護(hu)(hu)意識和能力。三是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)專(zhuan)(zhuan)業合作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)機(ji)(ji)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)。學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)要積極引入校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)外專(zhuan)(zhuan)業力量(liang),參(can)與(yu)(yu)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)護(hu)(hu)、專(zhuan)(zhuan)業輔導(dao)(dao)和矯治幫(bang)(bang)扶(fu)。要加強與(yu)(yu)有關(guan)部門(men)(men)的(de)(de)協(xie)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)。四是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)民主參(can)與(yu)(yu)機(ji)(ji)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)。要求(qiu)(qiu)充分保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)障學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)、家(jia)(jia)長(chang)(chang)(chang)的(de)(de)參(can)與(yu)(yu)權。規(gui)(gui)(gui)(gui)(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)應(ying)當發(fa)揮學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)會、少代會、共青團等學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)組織的(de)(de)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)用,指導(dao)(dao)、支(zhi)(zhi)持學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)參(can)與(yu)(yu)權益(yi)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)護(hu)(hu)。五(wu)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)家(jia)(jia)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)溝通(tong)機(ji)(ji)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)。家(jia)(jia)庭、家(jia)(jia)長(chang)(chang)(chang)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)未(wei)(wei)(wei)成年(nian)人(ren)(ren)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)護(hu)(hu)的(de)(de)重(zhong)要主體(ti),家(jia)(jia)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)協(xie)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)做好未(wei)(wei)(wei)成年(nian)人(ren)(ren)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)護(hu)(hu)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)的(de)(de)關(guan)鍵(jian)(jian)。《規(gui)(gui)(gui)(gui)(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)》要求(qiu)(qiu)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)建立與(yu)(yu)家(jia)(jia)長(chang)(chang)(chang)有效聯系機(ji)(ji)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi),加強日常溝通(tong),向家(jia)(jia)長(chang)(chang)(chang)及(ji)時告知學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)身體(ti)及(ji)心(xin)(xin)理狀況。六是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)強制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)報告機(ji)(ji)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)。落(luo)實(shi)未(wei)(wei)(wei)成年(nian)人(ren)(ren)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)護(hu)(hu)法(fa)(fa)要求(qiu)(qiu),規(gui)(gui)(gui)(gui)(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)和教(jiao)(jiao)職(zhi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)發(fa)現學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)遭(zao)受(shou)或(huo)疑(yi)似遭(zao)受(shou)家(jia)(jia)庭暴力、虐(nve)待、遺棄、長(chang)(chang)(chang)期無人(ren)(ren)照料(liao)、失蹤(zong)等不(bu)法(fa)(fa)侵害以及(ji)面臨不(bu)法(fa)(fa)侵害危險的(de)(de),應(ying)當依照規(gui)(gui)(gui)(gui)(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)及(ji)時向公安、民政、教(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)等有關(guan)部門(men)(men)報告。七(qi)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)首問(wen)負責機(ji)(ji)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)。規(gui)(gui)(gui)(gui)(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)教(jiao)(jiao)職(zhi)員(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)發(fa)現學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)權益(yi)受(shou)到侵害,屬(shu)于(yu)本職(zhi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)范(fan)圍(wei)的(de)(de),應(ying)當及(ji)時處(chu)理;不(bu)屬(shu)于(yu)本職(zhi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)范(fan)圍(wei)或(huo)者不(bu)能處(chu)理的(de)(de)事(shi)項,應(ying)當及(ji)時報告。八(ba)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)幫(bang)(bang)扶(fu)救(jiu)助機(ji)(ji)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)。《規(gui)(gui)(gui)(gui)(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)》要求(qiu)(qiu),學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)因遭(zao)受(shou)遺棄、虐(nve)待向學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)請求(qiu)(qiu)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)護(hu)(hu)的(de)(de),學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)不(bu)得拒絕、推諉,需(xu)要采(cai)取救(jiu)助措施的(de)(de),應(ying)當先行(xing)救(jiu)助;學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)要關(guan)心(xin)(xin)愛護(hu)(hu)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng),為身體(ti)或(huo)者心(xin)(xin)理受(shou)到傷害的(de)(de)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)提供相應(ying)的(de)(de)心(xin)(xin)理輔導(dao)(dao)、幫(bang)(bang)扶(fu)教(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)(yu)。

10. 問: 政(zheng)府部門怎么(me)支(zhi)持和監(jian)督(du)學校未成年人保護工作?

答: 未成年學(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)保(bao)護不僅(jin)是學(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)的(de)職(zhi)責(ze)(ze)(ze),需要(yao)政府(fu)給予支(zhi)持(chi)保(bao)障,也需要(yao)政府(fu)加(jia)強(qiang)監(jian)(jian)督指(zhi)(zhi)導。一(yi)是建(jian)(jian)立(li)(li)協(xie)同機(ji)(ji)(ji)制(zhi)(zhi)。教(jiao)育部(bu)門(men)及(ji)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)民(min)檢察(cha)院、人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)民(min)法(fa)(fa)院、公安、司法(fa)(fa)、民(min)政、應(ying)急管理等部(bu)門(men)應(ying)當建(jian)(jian)立(li)(li)協(xie)同機(ji)(ji)(ji)制(zhi)(zhi),共(gong)同加(jia)強(qiang)指(zhi)(zhi)導與監(jian)(jian)督。二是落(luo)實從業(ye)禁(jin)止(zhi)。教(jiao)育部(bu)門(men)應(ying)當會(hui)同有(you)關(guan)部(bu)門(men)健全(quan)(quan)教(jiao)職(zhi)工(gong)從業(ye)禁(jin)止(zhi)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)員(yuan)名單和(he)查詢(xun)機(ji)(ji)(ji)制(zhi)(zhi),指(zhi)(zhi)導、監(jian)(jian)督學(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)健全(quan)(quan)準入(ru)和(he)定(ding)期(qi)查詢(xun)制(zhi)(zhi)度。三是提(ti)供專業(ye)服務(wu)。教(jiao)育部(bu)門(men)可(ke)以通(tong)過政府(fu)購(gou)買(mai)服務(wu)的(de)方式(shi),組(zu)織社會(hui)組(zu)織、專業(ye)機(ji)(ji)(ji)構(gou)及(ji)其他社會(hui)力(li)量,為學(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)提(ti)專業(ye)服務(wu)。四是建(jian)(jian)立(li)(li)機(ji)(ji)(ji)構(gou)隊伍。教(jiao)育部(bu)門(men)應(ying)當指(zhi)(zhi)定(ding)專門(men)機(ji)(ji)(ji)構(gou)或者人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)員(yuan)承(cheng)擔學(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)保(bao)護的(de)監(jian)(jian)督職(zhi)責(ze)(ze)(ze),有(you)條件的(de)可(ke)以設立(li)(li)學(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)保(bao)護專兼職(zhi)監(jian)(jian)察(cha)員(yuan)負責(ze)(ze)(ze)未成年人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)保(bao)護工(gong)作(zuo)。五是建(jian)(jian)立(li)(li)投訴渠道。教(jiao)育部(bu)門(men)建(jian)(jian)立(li)(li)投訴舉(ju)報(bao)途徑,受理對學(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)或者教(jiao)職(zhi)工(gong)違反本規定(ding)或者其他法(fa)(fa)律法(fa)(fa)規、侵害學(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)權利的(de)投訴、舉(ju)報(bao)。六是發展社會(hui)組(zu)織。縣級(ji)教(jiao)育部(bu)門(men)應(ying)當會(hui)同民(min)政部(bu)門(men),推動設立(li)(li)未成年學(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)保(bao)護社會(hui)組(zu)織,協(xie)助開(kai)展學(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)保(bao)護工(gong)作(zuo)。七是加(jia)強(qiang)考核評(ping)估(gu)。教(jiao)育部(bu)門(men)應(ying)當建(jian)(jian)立(li)(li)學(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)保(bao)護工(gong)作(zuo)評(ping)估(gu)制(zhi)(zhi)度,定(ding)期(qi)對學(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)履(lv)行(xing)保(bao)護學(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)法(fa)(fa)定(ding)職(zhi)責(ze)(ze)(ze)情(qing)況(kuang)進行(xing)評(ping)估(gu)。八是強(qiang)化督導問責(ze)(ze)(ze)。規定(ding)各級(ji)教(jiao)育督導機(ji)(ji)(ji)構(gou)應(ying)當將學(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)學(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)(sheng)保(bao)護工(gong)作(zuo)情(qing)況(kuang)納入(ru)政府(fu)履(lv)行(xing)教(jiao)育職(zhi)責(ze)(ze)(ze)評(ping)價(jia)和(he)學(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)督導評(ping)估(gu)的(de)內容。

11. 問: 學校(xiao)及其教職工沒(mei)有履行保護職責(ze)的,怎么問責(ze)?

答: 《規(gui)定(ding)(ding)》明(ming)確(que)(que)了(le)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)及教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)職(zhi)工(gong)不(bu)履行(xing)(xing)(xing)責(ze)(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren)的(de)(de)(de)(de)具體處理辦法(fa)(fa),細(xi)化(hua)和完善(shan)法(fa)(fa)律責(ze)(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren),為(wei)(wei)下一(yi)步加強管(guan)理問責(ze)(ze)(ze)提供了(le)更為(wei)(wei)明(ming)確(que)(que)的(de)(de)(de)(de)依(yi)據。一(yi)是(shi)(shi)明(ming)確(que)(que)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)侵權責(ze)(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren)。學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)行(xing)(xing)(xing)為(wei)(wei)直(zhi)接(jie)侵害(hai)(hai)未(wei)成年人(ren)(ren)合(he)法(fa)(fa)權益(yi)的(de)(de)(de)(de),學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)主要負責(ze)(ze)(ze)人(ren)(ren)、直(zhi)接(jie)責(ze)(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren)人(ren)(ren)或(huo)者其他責(ze)(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren)人(ren)(ren)員以(yi)及學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)要承(cheng)擔(dan)相(xiang)應責(ze)(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren)。二是(shi)(shi)明(ming)確(que)(que)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)管(guan)理責(ze)(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren)。學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)未(wei)按(an)本(ben)規(gui)定(ding)(ding)建(jian)立學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)權利(li)保護機(ji)制,或(huo)者制定(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)(de)(de)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)規(gui)違(wei)反(fan)(fan)法(fa)(fa)律法(fa)(fa)規(gui)和本(ben)規(gui)定(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)(de)(de),要承(cheng)擔(dan)相(xiang)應責(ze)(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren)。三是(shi)(shi)明(ming)確(que)(que)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)監(jian)督責(ze)(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren)。學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)未(wei)履行(xing)(xing)(xing)對教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)職(zhi)工(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)管(guan)理、監(jian)督責(ze)(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren),致(zhi)使發生(sheng)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)職(zhi)工(gong)嚴(yan)重侵害(hai)(hai)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)身心(xin)健康的(de)(de)(de)(de)違(wei)法(fa)(fa)犯罪行(xing)(xing)(xing)為(wei)(wei),或(huo)者有包庇、隱瞞(man)不(bu)報(bao)(bao),威脅、阻(zu)攔報(bao)(bao)案,妨礙調(diao)查、對學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)打(da)擊(ji)報(bao)(bao)復等(deng)行(xing)(xing)(xing)為(wei)(wei)的(de)(de)(de)(de),承(cheng)擔(dan)行(xing)(xing)(xing)政(zheng)(zheng)責(ze)(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren)乃至法(fa)(fa)律責(ze)(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren)。四是(shi)(shi)明(ming)確(que)(que)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)職(zhi)工(gong)侵權責(ze)(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren)。教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)職(zhi)工(gong)違(wei)反(fan)(fan)本(ben)規(gui)定(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)(de)(de),要依(yi)照《事業單位工(gong)作人(ren)(ren)員處分暫行(xing)(xing)(xing)規(gui)定(ding)(ding)》《中(zhong)小(xiao)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)師(shi)違(wei)反(fan)(fan)職(zhi)業道德行(xing)(xing)(xing)為(wei)(wei)處理辦法(fa)(fa)》等(deng)規(gui)定(ding)(ding)予以(yi)處理。其中(zhong),明(ming)確(que)(que)有性(xing)騷擾(rao)、性(xing)侵害(hai)(hai)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)行(xing)(xing)(xing)為(wei)(wei)的(de)(de)(de)(de),應當(dang)依(yi)法(fa)(fa)予以(yi)開除或(huo)者解聘;有教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)師(shi)資格的(de)(de)(de)(de),由(you)主管(guan)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)行(xing)(xing)(xing)政(zheng)(zheng)部(bu)(bu)(bu)門(men)撤銷教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)師(shi)資格,納入從(cong)業禁止人(ren)(ren)員名單;涉嫌犯罪的(de)(de)(de)(de),移送有關部(bu)(bu)(bu)門(men)依(yi)法(fa)(fa)追(zhui)究(jiu)責(ze)(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren)。五(wu)是(shi)(shi)明(ming)確(que)(que)教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)部(bu)(bu)(bu)門(men)失(shi)職(zhi)責(ze)(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren)。教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)行(xing)(xing)(xing)政(zheng)(zheng)部(bu)(bu)(bu)門(men)未(wei)履行(xing)(xing)(xing)對學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)指導、監(jian)督職(zhi)責(ze)(ze)(ze),轄區內學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)校(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)出現(xian)嚴(yan)重侵害(hai)(hai)學(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)(xue)生(sheng)權益(yi)情(qing)形的(de)(de)(de)(de),由(you)上級教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)行(xing)(xing)(xing)政(zheng)(zheng)部(bu)(bu)(bu)門(men)、教(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)育(yu)督導機(ji)構責(ze)(ze)(ze)令(ling)改正、予以(yi)通報(bao)(bao)批(pi)評、誡勉談(tan)話,情(qing)節嚴(yan)重的(de)(de)(de)(de)依(yi)法(fa)(fa)追(zhui)究(jiu)主要負責(ze)(ze)(ze)人(ren)(ren)或(huo)者直(zhi)接(jie)責(ze)(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren)人(ren)(ren)的(de)(de)(de)(de)責(ze)(ze)(ze)任(ren)(ren)。

12. 問(wen): 推動《規定》貫徹落(luo)實(shi),下一(yi)步(bu)有什么要求和舉(ju)措?

答: 《規(gui)(gui)定》對學(xue)校(xiao)管理提(ti)出了很多要求,涉(she)及到學(xue)校(xiao)治校(xiao)辦學(xue)理念的更新(xin)、制(zhi)度的重構和(he)(he)(he)(he)能(neng)力(li)的提(ti)升。下一步,教(jiao)育部(bu)將指導各級(ji)教(jiao)育部(bu)門和(he)(he)(he)(he)學(xue)校(xiao)做好學(xue)習宣傳,準確(que)理解《規(gui)(gui)定》精(jing)神(shen)、準確(que)把(ba)握工作要求,確(que)保(bao)在9月1日(ri)《規(gui)(gui)定》正(zheng)式實施前,教(jiao)育系(xi)統干部(bu)師生能(neng)夠普(pu)遍知曉(xiao)和(he)(he)(he)(he)理解《規(gui)(gui)定》的精(jing)神(shen)和(he)(he)(he)(he)要求;要健(jian)全工作機(ji)(ji)制(zhi),加強與人(ren)(ren)(ren)民(min)檢(jian)察院、人(ren)(ren)(ren)民(min)法(fa)院、公安、司法(fa)、民(min)政、應急管理等部(bu)門以及從(cong)事未成(cheng)(cheng)年(nian)人(ren)(ren)(ren)保(bao)護工作的群團組(zu)織(zhi)的溝通(tong)協(xie)(xie)作,建立(li)協(xie)(xie)同機(ji)(ji)制(zhi),形成(cheng)(cheng)工作合力(li)。要完善教(jiao)育內部(bu)工作機(ji)(ji)制(zhi),明確(que)專門機(ji)(ji)構和(he)(he)(he)(he)人(ren)(ren)(ren)員負責未成(cheng)(cheng)年(nian)人(ren)(ren)(ren)保(bao)護工作;要加強支持保(bao)障,加大經(jing)費(fei)、人(ren)(ren)(ren)員等方面的投入力(li)度,為學(xue)校(xiao)提(ti)供必要條(tiao)件、解決實際困(kun)難;要推動基層試(shi)點,教(jiao)育部(bu)將會(hui)同有關(guan)機(ji)(ji)構,開(kai)展(zhan)未成(cheng)(cheng)年(nian)人(ren)(ren)(ren)學(xue)校(xiao)保(bao)護工作的試(shi)點,給予相應支持,組(zu)織(zhi)開(kai)展(zhan)培訓,促(cu)進地(di)方、學(xue)校(xiao)不斷提(ti)升未成(cheng)(cheng)年(nian)人(ren)(ren)(ren)學(xue)校(xiao)保(bao)護工作的能(neng)力(li)和(he)(he)(he)(he)水平。

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